Salmaan reports: "On the last day of 'Sha'baan', the Messenger of
Allah (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) addressed us and said: "O people,
there comes upon you now a great month, a most blessed month, in which
lies a night greater in worth than one thousand months. It is a month in
which Allah has made it compulsory that fasting should be observed by
day; and He has made the 'Taraweeh' by night a 'Sunnah'. Whosoever tries
drawing nearer to Allah by performing any non-obligatory deed in this
month, for him shall be such a reward as if he had perform a "Fardh"
(obligatory observance) in any other time of the year. And Whosoever
performs a 'Fardh', for him shall be the reward of seventy 'Fardh' in
any other time of the year. This is indeed the month of patience, and
the reward for true patience is 'Jannah' (Paradise); it is the month of
sympathy for one's fellowmen; it is the month wherein a true believer's
"Rizq" (provisions) is increased. Whosoever feeds a fasting person in
order to break the fast (at sunset), for him there shall be forgiveness
of his sins and emancipation from the fire of 'Jahannam' (Hell), and for
him shall be the same reward as for him (whom he fed), without that
person's reward being diminished in the least."
Thereupon we said: "O Messenger of Allah, not all of us possess the
means whereby we can provide enough for a fasting person to break his
fast." The Messenger of Allah replied: "Allah grants this same reward to
him who gives a fasting person a single date or a drink of water or a
sip of milk to break the fast. This is a month, the first part of which
brings Allah's Mercy, the middle of which brings His forgiveness and the
last part of which brings emancipation from the fire of 'Jahannam'
(Hell). 'Whosoever lessens the burden of his servants (bondsmen) in this
month, Allah will forgive him and free him from the fire of
"And in this month, four things you should endeavour to perform in great
number, two of which shall be to please your Lord, while the other two
shall be those without which you cannot make do. Those which shall be to
please your Lord, are that you should in great quantity recite the
'Kalimah Tayyibah': Laa ilaaha il'lal Lah ' and make much 'Istighfaar'
(beg Allah's forgiveness with Astaghfirullah). And as for those two
without which you cannot make do, you should beg Allah for entry into
Paradise and seek refuge with Him from the fire of 'Jahannam'."
"And whosoever gave a person, who fasted, water to drink Allah shall
grant him a drink from my fountain such a drink, whereafter he shall
never again feel thirsty until he enters 'Jannah'." (Reported by 'Ibn
Khuzaimah' in his 'Sahih').
Chapter 2, Revelation 185 of the Quran states:
The month of Ramadan is that in which was revealed the Quran; a
guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the
criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him
fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number
of other days. Allah desires for you ease; He desires not hardship for
you; and that you should complete the period, and that you should
magnify Allah for having guided you, and that perhaps you may be
Thus, via the Quran, Muslims are informed that Muhammad,
first received revelations in the lunar month of Ramadan. Therefore,
the month of Ramadan is considered to be the most sacred month of the
months of the lunar Islamic calendar, the recording of which began with
The beginning of Ramadan
Hilāl (the crescent)
is typically a day (or more) after the astronomical new moon. Since the
new moon indicates the beginning of the new month, Muslims can usually
safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan.
However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated
Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended.
Nevertheless, the consistent variations of a day have existed since the
time of Muhammad.
In the Quran
The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Quran was sent down -
right guidance to mankind, and clear signs of guidance and distinction
of truth from falsehood. Those among you who witness it, let him fast
therein. Whoever is sick or on a journey, then a number of other days.
God desires ease for you, and desires not hardship. Thus may you fulfill
the number of days assigned, magnify God for having guided you, and
perhaps you will be thankful.
Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection and worship. Muslims are
expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam and to
avoid obscene and irreligious sights and sounds. Sexual intercourse
among spouses is allowed after one has ended the daily fast. During
fasting, intercourse is prohibited as well as eating and drinking, and
resistance of all temptations is encouraged. Purity of both thoughts and
actions is important. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart
away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner
soul and free it from harm. It also teaches Muslims to practice
self-discipline, self-control, sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging actions of generosity and charity (Zakat).
It becomes compulsory for Muslims to start fasting when they reach
puberty, so long as they are healthy, sane and have no disabilities or
illnesses. The elderly, the chronically ill, and the mentally ill are
exempt from fasting, although the first two groups must endeavor to feed
the poor in place of their missed fasting. Also exempt are pregnant
women if they believe it would be harmful to them or the unborn baby,
women during the period of their menstruation, and women nursing their
newborns. A difference of opinion exists among Islamic scholars as to
whether this last group must make up the days they miss at a later date,
or feed poor people as a recompense for days missed. While fasting is not considered compulsory in childhood, many children endeavour to complete as many fasts as possible as practice for later life. Lastly, those traveling (musaafir) are exempt, but must make up the days they miss. More specifically, Twelver Shī‘ah define those who travel more than 14 mi (23 km) in a day are exempt.
Increased prayer and recitation of the Quran
In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire
Quran. Some Muslims perform the recitation of the entire Quran by means
of special prayers, called Tarawih, which are held in the mosques every night of the month, during which a whole section of the Quran (Juz',
which is 1/30 of the Quran) is recited. Therefore the entire Quran
would be completed at the end of the month. However it is not required
to read the whole Quran in the Salatul Tarawih.
Ramadan is also a time when Muslims are to slow down from worldly
affairs and focus on self-reformation, spiritual cleansing and
enlightenment; this is to establish a link between themselves and God
through prayer, supplication, charity, good deeds, kindness and helping
others. Since it is a festival of giving and sharing, Muslims prepare
special foods and buy gifts for their family and friends and for giving
to the poor and needy who cannot afford it; this can involve buying new
clothes, shoes and other items of need. There is also a social aspect
involving the preparation of special foods and inviting people for Iftar.
Muslims all around the world will abstain from food and drink,
through fasting, from dawn to sunset. At sunset, the family will gather
the fast-breaking meal known as Iftar. The meal starts with the eating of three dates
— just as Muhammad used to do. Then it's time for the Maghrib prayer,
which is the fourth of the five daily prayers, after which the main meal
Over time, Iftar has grown into banquet festivals. This is a time of
fellowship with families, friends and surrounding communities, but may
also occupy larger spaces at mosques or banquet halls, where a hundred
or more may gather at a time.
Charity is very important in Islam, and even more so during Ramadan. Zakat,
often translated as "the poor-rate", is obligatory as one of the
pillars of Islam; a fixed percentage required to be given by those with
is voluntary charity in given above and beyond what is required from
the obligation of zakat. Muslims believe that all good deeds are more
handsomely rewarded in Ramadan than in any other month of the year.
Consequently, many will choose this time to give a larger portion, if
not all, of the zakat for which they are obligated to give. In addition,
many will also use this time to give a larger portion of sadaqa in
order to maximize the reward they believe will await them on the Day of Judgment.
In many Muslim countries, it is not uncommon to see people giving
more food to the poor and the homeless, and even to see large public
areas for the poor to come and break their fast. It is said that if a
person helps a fasting person to break their fast, then they receive a
reward for that fast, without diminishing the reward that the fasting
person got for their fast.
Even in non-Muslim countries, no matter how small the Muslim
population, a consistent increase in charitable donations to both
fellows Muslims and non-Muslims occurs more so in this month. In the
USA, for example, many Muslim communities dispersed throughout the
country, participate in contributing food, clothes and non-perishable
food items to local charities.
Sometimes referred to as "the night of decree or measures", Laylat al-Qadr is considered the most holy night of the year.
Muslims believe that it is the night in which the Quran was first
revealed to the prophet Muhammad, as stated in Chapet 97 of the Qu'ran.
Also, Laylat al-Qadr is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered
night during the last 10 days of Ramadan, either the night of the 21st,
23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th.
The Muslim holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر, festivity of breaking the fast),
sometimes spelled in English as Eid al-Fitr, marks the end of Ramadan
and the beginning of the next lunar month called Shawwal in Arabic. This
first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon
has been sighted or if no visual sighting was possible due to weather
the completion of 30 days of fasting. This first day of Shawwal is
called Eid ul-Fitr. Eid Ul-Fitr, may also be a reference towards the
festive nature of having endured the month of fasting successfully and
returning to the more natural disposition (fitra) of being able to eat,
drink and resume intimacy with spouses during the day.
For the manner in which the Eid is celebrated, see Eid ul-Fitr and Salat al Eid.
Ramadan lantern decorations
Ramadan in the Old City of Jerusalem
Various cultural additions are mistakenly associated as part of the
original celebrations arising from the time of Muhammad. However, this
is not so with many of forms that the celebration has taken in various
cultures and countries. For example, no symbols of Ramadan were evident
in any scholarly literature of Muhammad's lifetime, yet in some places
Ramadan is met with various decorations throughout the streets.
For example, in some Muslim countries today lights are strung up in
public squares, and across city streets, to add to the festivities of
the month. In Egypt, lanterns
have become symbolic of Ramadan. They are hung across the cities of
Egypt, part of an 800 year old tradition, the origin of which is said to
lie in the Fatimid era where the Caliph Al-Muizz Lideenillah
was greeted by people holding lanterns to celebrate his ruling. From
that time lanterns were used to light mosques and houses throughout the
city. In the West, many Muslim households have taken to decorating the
inside of their homes to make Ramadan a more special time for their
children. Usually parents buy new clothes and toys for their children or
give them money.
It is still common to observe Salat al Eid which was the tradition of Muhammad.
Non-spiritual (secular) curiosities
Difference between the lunar calendar and the solar calendar
Compared to the solar calendar, the dates of Ramadan vary, moving backwards by about eleven days each year depending on the moon; thus, a person will have fasted every day of the Gregorian calendar year in 34 years' time.
Non-Arabic texts about Ramadan
The month of Ramadan was in existence before Islam. Ramadan existed before Islam as one of the twelve months of the Arabic lunar calendar. However, it was not called Ramadan during those times.
From the writings of Abu Zanad, an Arabic writer from Iraq who lived
around 747 A.D. (after the founding of Islam), we conclude that at least
one Mandaean community located in northern Iraq observed Ramadan. Abu Zanad and Abdel Allah ibn Zakwan Abi al-Zanad mentioned that Ramadan originally had pagan roots in India and the Middle East. Ramadan was a pagan ceremony practiced by the Sabians, whether they were Harranians or Sabians.
Thus, those days are commonly referred to as Jahilliyah,
as Muhammad used to call those times himself, according to numerous
biographical accounts of his life. In regards to Ramadan since the
advent of Islam, it wasn't until after believing in the form of
Abrahamic monotheism led by Muhammad that Ramadan became obligatory for
fasting. Thus, we live to see that since that time, Ramadan has come to
be associated as one of the major obligatory tenets of Islam.
See also Five Pillars of Islam.
Dispute of the literal meaning of the word Ramadan
The word Ramadan is derived from an Arabic rootR-M-Ḍ, as in words like "ramiḍa" or "ar-ramaḍ"
denoting intense heat, scorched ground and shortness of rations.
Ramadan, as a name for the month, is of Islamic origin. Prior to Islam
and the exclusion of intercalary days from the Islamic calendar, the name of the month was Natiq and the month fell in the warm season.
This pre-Islamic period became commonly referred to as the Period of
Ignorance. However, when God fulfilled His Covenant with Abraham to make
Prophets of his lineage by choosing Muhammad -- who was of the lineage
of Ishmael (brother of Isaac
-- by Revealing the first of the Quran the period of Arabia's ignorance
of the monotheism of the Children of Israel came to an end. This first
Revelation was sent down during this month. Furthermore, God
proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His Sake was not a new
innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those
truly devoted to The Oneness of God. One such example of those whom observed fasting before Islam were the Jews who had migrated to Medinah awaiting the foretold unlettered Prophet. This may or may not be referring to the Jewish practice of fasting on Yom Kippur.
It is possible that the obligation to fast during Ramadan comes from
early injunction to fast on Ashura, the 10th day of the month of
Muharram, which may have once been identical with the Jewish observance
of the Day of Atonement. This obligation, however, was ended by the
command to fast during Ramadan instead in the Quran verse 2:184.
Although having no significant effect on the practices observed
today, the derivation of the name Ramadan is in some dispute. Many
believe that it comes from the Arabic "ramad", which means scorching,
and is perhaps a reference to the idea that the fast "scorches" away
human sins. During pre-Islamic times the month of Ramadan was observed
in Arabia, as a month when the various tribes observed a truce from any
existing hostilities. However, it wasn't until after the Prophethood of
Muhammad that Ramadan became associated with religious monotheism, and
has been observed as such ever since.
Kami mengundang dan mengharapkan doa restu dari teman, sahabat, keluarga, rekan, orang-orang yang mengenal kami dan kami kenal, yang menyayangi kami dan kami sayangi serta mereka yang mendoakan dan kami doakan.
Untuk bersilaturahim, memperkukuh ukhuwah dan memohon syafaat Rasulullah SAW atas keinginan Kami dalam mengikuti sunnahnya.
Undangan Pernikahan Andi & Risna
Bila ada keluangan waktu, kami tunggu doa restu dan kehadiran saudara sekalian.
Aldakwah.org - O my sister, God has glorify and lifted high your place, He wants you well maintained and kept secure from the hands of evil who want plunges you into the valley of humiliation and exploit your weakness, therefore, he set the laws and regulations that can ensure the identity your as a woman, because you are not men and men also are not you, Allah says:
"... And the boys are not like girls ..." (Surah 3:36)
God indeed wants to create His creation consists of the type of men and women, he said:
"And all things have We created in pairs so that you remember the greatness of God."(Surah 51:49)
Both were created by God with a different nature and character to complement each other rather than facing each other and compete in life, your role is different from region of brotherhood, all that God had done purely for the sake of making you a respectable man, dignified and noble. O my sister, I want to take you to reflect on some laws that he sets for you to maintain a female identity your kemulian.
First, God justifies perk thee with ornaments of gold and pure silk which he forbade to men, `Messenger of Allah said:" Both these jewelry (gold and pure silk) are forbidden for men and permissible for a woman "(Narrated by Ibn Majah from Ali ibn Abi Talib a.).He makes halal all this for you to maintain your beauty and your character is soft.
Second, contrary, God forbid anything that can eliminate the nature kewanitaanmu smooth and soft it is good in the dress, behave, and behavior that resembles the male, as well as proscribed men resemble women in dress, movement and behavior, because it not in accordance with the spirit and temperament.`Prophet said:
"Allah has cursed men wearing women's clothing and women wearing men's clothes" (Narrated by Abu Dawood from Abu Hurairah ra.)
Third, God protect your weakness and put you always in the shade of a man, He does not sue you make a living to meet your needs or the needs of others, but the man which He enjoined to meet all the needs of your life, because he did not want to wrestle you in for a bite of life rice for you not insulted.If you are a girl, your father and brother that meets your needs, if you are a mother, your son is a man who sued ensure the needs of your life and if you are a wife, your husband should be responsible for all of your needs, then if no one among them are ensuring the needs of your life then God requires that the government meets all the basic intent of your life.
Fourth, God commanded you to keep your views to the opposite your kind (female) for devil does not plunges into puddle of abject.God says:
"Say to the believing woman:" Let them hold their views ... "(Qur'an 24:31)
Fifth, God commanded you to keep your body from the hands of ignorant abuse and humiliation spy meddling with them with precious clothes except face and palms of your hands.Allah says:
"... And let them show off their adornment except that (usually) visible from mereka.Dan let them wrap cloth kedada maimed them ..." (Qur'an 24:31)
Sixth, God commanded you not reveal the hidden your jewelry such as hair, neck, calves and arms hands except to your husbands, and those that include a mahram for you.Allahl said which means: "... and not to show off their adornment except to their husbands, or fathers, or their husband's fathers, or their sons or their husbands sons, or their brothers, or sons their brothers, or sons of their sisters, or women of Islam, or the slaves that they have or the servants of men who have no desire (for women) or children who do not understand about female genitalia ... "(Surah 24:31)
Seventh, God memerintahakan you walk by casually and spoke in a tone so low that you look dignified and respectable.God lberfirman:
"... And let them not strike their feet for jewelry in mind they hide ..."(Surah 24:31)
"... You shall not be subject in speaking so berkeinginanlah people who have diseases in their hearts ..." (Qur'an 33:32)
Eighth, God commanded you avoid everything that can attract men's attention to yourself and be tempted to look by following the behavior of the first ignorance or the ignorance of this century. `Prophet said:
"Women who wear pafum went out of his house for people to smell the aroma is penzina" (Narrated by Abu Daud)
Ninth, God forbid you be alone with men other than husband and family for devil does not knock you to the brink of humiliation.`Prophet said:
"Let not a man alone with a woman, nor did he go unless accompanied mahramnya" (Muttafaqun'alaih) Sister, if you consider all the commands of God with a clear conscience and honest, and you will find that God really has put yourselves like diamond pearl stored in a place that should not be awake touched by the hands of people who at heart is a disease, you is a noble and honorable thing in Islam.
In one day the Prophet was sitting in the mosque with his companions.Suddenly the Prophet exclaimed, "will come of the Host."Simultaneously the companions looked toward the door.Apparently a friend who came to greet mejelis Prophet then prayed.
The next day again, at the same sitausi, the Apostle exclaimed, "There will come people of Paradise."Suddenly the door comes from a friend who yesterday also dubbed the Apostle of the Host.
After the dissolution of mejelis prophet, a friend of pursuing "the Host" is.He said, "excuse me, O my brother. I'm fighting with my family can I stuff a day or two to stay at your house?"
"The inhabitants of paradise" is then said, "Well ..."One day passed, two days passed and three days passed.Finally, this friend can not stand and say the "heavenly host"."O my brother actually I have berbohon you. I do not quarrel with my family. I spent the night at your house to see what deeds because I heard the apostle called you the Host. But when I look at your practice the same as what I do. I so do not understand .. ... "
"The inhabitants of heaven" he answered, "I'm sorry, this is me! Religion that I run no less, not more as you watch for three days. I do not know why the apostle called" the heavenly host. "
Friend and went to leave "the Host".Suddenly "the Garden" was called Companions."Brother, I remembered something. I never envy at fellow Muslims. Maybe it ......"
Companions immediately exclaimed, "here's what distinguishes you with us. Here's the secret why the Apostle calls you a heavenly host. This is what we can not do."
Apparently, the issue of malice is not a trivial issue.There was a handyman satay at my place.Alhamdulillah satenya which is remarkably soft demand.Neighbors began to sneer and accuse the Tukang Sate maintain tuyul.When the son of the Tukang Sate accident, another neighbor snickered, "feel! That tumbal result tuyul play!"
Look at us.Do we behave exactly the neighbors Tukang Sate?We are not willing to have our brother has a value of "more" in our eyes.Fuss, grass it usually looks more "green" than our grass.We envy the success of our brother.
There was a successful career woman.Because of his workload, he often worked overtime to come home late at night.He accused his neighbor slut.When the results of his efforts he was able to buy cars, noisy neighbors again, this time he is called "mistress of a boss."
By Jove!Instead of learning from the success of our brother, we even made a face and accused him of abracadabra.
Envy is a matter of heart.From envy are usually born prejudice, then the suspicion is usually born slander and accusations, to spread this slander us everywhere gossiping while gossiping behavior.
Look, stems from envy and then followed another sin!
It was difficult to eliminate such envy.For that let us ask for His protection:
"Our Lord, give ampunlah us and our brothers who have been faithful in advance from us and do not you let the malice in our hearts against those who believe: Our Lord, Thou art the Clement, the Merciful."(Sura 59:10)
Nadirsyah Hosen is a lecturer in the Faculty of Sharia UIN Sharif Hidayatullah, Jakarta